Uses and Side Effects of Azithromycin 250mg/500mg

Azithromycin is an antibiotic which is being used to treat upper respiratory tract infection, like throat infection, ear, nose, flu, sinusitis, and eye infection, lower respiratory tract infection include, bronchitis, chest infection, pneumonia, and body infection include,  intestinal infections, abdominal infection, and urinary tract infection, etc. The formula of azithromycin is C38H72N2O12. Azithromycin is saving for children. It can be used in children to treat throat infection or pain, ear, nose, and eye infection, and chest infection. Azithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic belonging to the azalide group.

According to medicalnewstoday.com azithromycin is also being used as a remedy for Covid-19.

If you are taking azithromycin for the first time make sure you have no following diseases like kidney stones, irregular heartbeats, myasthenia gravis, and diabetes and had any previous surgery.

Indications

Azithromycin is being used to treat mild to moderate infections caused by microorganisms listed below.

Adults

  • Acute bacterial infection
  • Pulmonary disease
  • Community-acquired pneumonia
  • Pharyngitis and tonsillitis
  • Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infection (Abscesses usually require surgical drainage)
  • Urethritis and cervicitis
  • Genital ulcer disease in men

Pediatric Patients

  • Acute otitis media
  • Community-acquired pneumonia (Note: Azithromycin should be used in pediatric patients with pneumonia who are judged to be inappropriate for oral therapy because of moderate to severe illness
  • Pharyngitis and tonsillitis

Dosage

Infection Recommended Dose/Duration
Community-acquired pneumonia (mild severity)

Pharyngitis/tonsillitis (Second-line therapy) skin structure (uncomplicated

500mg as a single dose on Day 1, followed by 250mg once daily on Days 2 through 5
Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (mild to moderate) 500mg QD* 3 Days or

500mg as a single dose on Day 1, followed by 250mg once daily on days 2 through 5

Acute bacterial sinusitis

Genital ulcer disease (chancroid)

Non-gonococcal urethritis and cervicitis

Gonococcal urethritis and cervicitis

500mg QD* 3 Days

One single 1 gram dose

One single 1 gram dose

One single 2-gram dose

Pediatric Patients

Body Weight Age Dose (mg) Teaspoonful/day Duration
15-25 3-7 200mg OD 1 TSF 3 Days
26-35 8-11 300mg OD one and a half TSF 3 Days
36-45 12-14 400mg OD Two TSF 3 Days

Note: 1 teaspoonful  (TSF) = 5ml

Side Effect of Azithromycin

In a clinical trial, it has been absorbed that, most of the reported side effects were mild to moderate in severity. Secondly, potentially serious side effects of angioedema and cholestatic jaundice were reported rarely.

Multiple-dose regimens: Overall, the most common treatment-related side effects in adult patients receiving multiple-dose of azithromycin were related to the gastrointestinal system with diarrhea/loose stools (4-5%), nausea, (3%) and abdominal pain (2-3%) were observed.

Cardiovascular: Palpitations and chest pain has been observed.

Genitourinary: Vaginitis, monilia, and nephritis have been reported.

Gastrointestinal: in the gastrointestinal, some cases have been observed such as dyspepsia, vomiting, flatulence, melena, and cholestatic jaundice, etc.

Allergic: In allergic reactions, azithromycin can cause rashes, photosensitivity, pruritus, and angioedema has been observed.

Single 1-gram dose regimen: The most common side effect in a single 1-gram dose regimen in patients was related to the gastrointestinal system and was more frequently reported as compared to patients receiving the multiple-dose regimen.

Single 2-gram dose regimen: Patients who are receiving a single 2-gram dose regimen of azithromycin also observed gastrointestinal problems. It can cause 18% of nausea, 14% of diarrhea/loose stools, 7% of vomiting, 7% of abdominal pain, 2% of vaginitis, 1% of dyspepsia and 1% of dizziness have been observed. The majority of these cases were mild to moderate in nature.

General: Asthenia, fatigue, paresthesia, malaise, and anaphylaxis.

Nervous system: In the nervous system azithromycin can cause dizziness, vertigo, headache, hyperactivity, nervousness, and agitation have been observed.

Psychiatric: Most common side effects of azithromycin on psychiatric include aggressive reaction and anxiety.

Skin/Appendages: Pruritus, rarely serious skin reactions including erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis.

Special senses: Hearing disturbances, deafness, taste and smell perversion or loss.

Warnings

Azithromycin should not be used in patients with pneumonia. Clostridium-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with the use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including azithromycin.

Precautions

Azithromycin is principally eliminated via the liver, caution should be exercised when azithromycin is administered to patients with impaired hepatic function.

Pregnancy and Lactation

Pregnancy category B: in animal studies, no evidence of harm to the fetus due to azithromycin was found. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies on pregnant women.

Secondly, it is not known either azithromycin is excreted in breast milk or not. Consult your physician before taking azithromycin in pregnancy and lactation.