The Uses and Side Effects of Metformin

If you are suffering from Type 2 diabetes, you may want to learn about the uses and side effects of metformin. This medication belongs to a class of drugs called biguanides and works by reducing the amount of glucose that your body absorbs from food and increasing the response to insulin. It can be helpful in preventing type 2 diabetes and improving overall health. Read on to find out more about this drug and how it can help you.

Metabolic Syndrome

While the term metabolic syndrome is often used in the context of diabetes, the condition is actually much broader than that. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), metabolic syndrome refers to the combination of increased blood sugar and an increase in triglyceride levels. A recent study from the University of Chicago showed that metabolic syndrome is prevalent in nearly 20% of American adults. The incidence of metabolic syndrome increased dramatically as patients aged, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated to be as high as 22% in the U.S. population.

The findings of this study indicate that metformin has a greater effect on men than on women in preventing metabolic syndrome. Women who have high levels of C-reactive protein are more likely to have metabolic syndrome. The findings may be due to the fact that women have lower levels of basal testosterone, which is one of the metabolic syndrome criteria. Metformin decreases basal testosterone levels, which is an important risk factor for obesity.

Alzheimer’s disease

One common drug for diabetes is being studied as an Alzheimer’s disease treatment. Researchers want to understand how metformin affects the brain and which parts of brain cells it targets to create new treatments. This drug is already widely prescribed for people with type 2 diabetes. However, the side effects of metformin are a concern. It has been linked to a number of problems, including the onset of depression and diarrhea.

In a study by Verna R. Porter, a neurologist, and director of diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease programs at the University of Pennsylvania, metformin reduced the risk of dementia and a number of cognitive tests. This study was funded by Australia’s National Health and Medical Research Council. The researchers found that metformin decreased the risk of cognitive decline among diabetes veterans, while other sulfonylureas did not appear to have any effect.


The study of the association between Metformin and osteoarthritis identified several novel targets of the diabetes drug. Two of these targets, AMPK and growth differentiation factor 15, mimicked the therapeutic effect of Metformin on OA. Metformin decreased levels of inflammatory cytokines, COX-2, and iNOS. Moreover, it decreased the production of PGE2, NO, and oxidative stress in synovial joint tissue. These findings suggest that metformin could slow the progression of OA in the knee.

The study of the inflammatory effects of Metformin on cartilage loss was carried out in overweight or obese adults with knee OA. Compared with the controls, metformin users had lower medial knee cartilage loss. Also, metformin recipients had fewer total knee replacements than controls. In addition, metformin treatment decreased the risk of total knee replacement surgery by 26%. However, the study of metformin and osteoarthritis and metformin interaction is still ongoing.

Gestational Diabetes

If you’re pregnant and taking metformin, you need to know the side effects of the drug and what to expect. It can lead to severe side effects. These side effects include lactic acidosis, low blood sugar, and yellowing of the skin. If you notice any of these symptoms, contact a healthcare professional. In most cases, the medication is safe and effective for gestational diabetes.

The most common side effect is low blood sugar. Some women report feeling shaky, sweating, or even pallor. They may also have trouble concentrating. Another common side effect is hypoglycemia, which can result in low blood sugar levels. In such cases, an oral agent may be an option. However, the drug has many risks. It may increase the risk of premature labor and the birth of a large, unhealthy baby.


Metformin is a diabetes medication that is often prescribed during pregnancy. Metformin increases insulin sensitivity and decreases hepatic glucose output. This results in decreased glucose levels and reduced body weight. Metformin is an appealing treatment option because it crosses the placenta. However, the potential side effects on the mother and fetus have limited its use during pregnancy. Listed below are some of the known side effects of metformin during pregnancy.

Metformin can cause adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially in women with low or high blood sugar. Moreover, metformin may also cause birth defects in the fetus. In mice, exposure to metformin during pregnancy was linked with reduced sperm morphology and smaller testicles in the offspring. The ratio of boys to girls was also reduced. However, the research is still preliminary.

Parkinson’s disease

Metformin is an effective drug for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). It has anti-inflammatory effects and is also known to reduce neuronal damage. Moreover, metformin inhibits a-synuclein phosphorylation and prevents the aging-related release of cytochrome C. However, there are several side effects associated with metformin.

It can increase the risk of gastrointestinal dysmotility and can worsen the disease. Its side effects include nausea, dizziness, presyncope events, and pain in the occipital region, commonly referred to as “the coat hanger sign.” The treatment of OH should focus on modifying the drug to eliminate the cause of the side effects, and should also include dietary modifications.